Water-bottom multiples are those multiples whose raypaths lie entirely within the water layer (Figure 6a). Since the sea floor usually has a higher reflectivity than deeper geological horizons, water-bottom multiples often have strong amplitudes. In deep water these multiples can be very clear and distinct.
Multiples from the water bottom (the interface of the base of water and the rock or sediment beneath it) and the air-water interface are common in marine seismic data, and .
On the left is a water-layer multiple which is a multiple with at least one upwards bounce at the water bottom and one downward bounce at the surface. It is a special case of the more general free-surface multiple, which must have a bounce from the free-surface but may or may not include an upward bounce at the water bottom. Examples of deep-water-bottom multiple dereverberation techniques applied to seismic-reflection data from the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Open-File Report By: Steven D. Peterson, A.H. Balch, W.C. Patterson, and D.J. Taylor.
The gathers are then transformed Water Bottom multiple-2 into the Radon space (which is frequency-space, f-x Water Bottom multiple-3 domain) where the data is decomposed into a series of Water Bottom multiple-4 parabolas, with the energy in each parabola being mapped Water Bottom multiple-5 to a P (or moveout) trace.
The waveform of the second water bottom multiple is (1-Z)3 in which the mudstone would be three times as strong as the soft mud. In the nth wave train the mudstone is n times as strong as the soft mud. Figure 3 is a textbook quality example of this simple concept. Water Bottom multiple-5 Primary Reflection-4 Figure 1a shows the synthetic CMP gather and its radon transform (Figure 1b). The transform shows a clear.
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Water-bottom multiple attenuation by Kirchhoff extrapolation. Emmanuel Spadavecchia 1 Bienati, N. and Drufuca, G. (), Water-bottom multiple attenuation by Kirchhoff extrapolation. Geophysical Prospecting, – doi: /jx Indeed the proposed approach has proved to work well on synthetic and field. The first ms portion represents the seismic wavelet. This is followed by a burst between 50 to ms that represents the correlation of the water bottom and primary. The isolated burst between to ms represents the actual multiple series (both the peg-legs and water-bottom multiples).Author: Öz Yilmaz.
Characteristics of the Free Surface Multiple Attenuation Using Wave Field Extrapolation* Patrícia P. Ferreira1, Marco Antonio2, Cetale Santos2, and Luiz Landau1 Search and Discovery Article # () Posted February 8, This type of multiple has at least one downward reflection at the air–water “free surface”. Simple water–bottom multiples (or pure water–bottom multiples) and second–order water– bottom multiples (or seafloor peg–leg) or reverberation belong to this type of multiples.
recording water-bottom data for multiple attenuation in shallow water environment (Wiggins, ; Pica et al., ). Whilst Whilst they have the advantage of relaxing the requirement in SRME that there must be a receiver at each shot location, they need.